Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a pattern of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. Here’s an overview:


ADHD symptoms are categorized into two types: inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Individuals may exhibit symptoms from one or both categories.


  • Difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
  • Frequent careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activities
  • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish tasks
  • Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
  • Forgetful in daily activities

Hyperactivity and Impulsivity:

  • Fidgeting with or tapping hands or feet, squirming in seat
  • Inability to stay seated in situations where it is expected
  • Running or climbing in inappropriate situations
  • Talking excessively
  • Interrupting or intruding on others’ conversations or games


Diagnosing ADHD involves several steps, including:

  1. Clinical Assessment: Detailed history-taking and observation of behaviors.
  2. Standardized Questionnaires and Rating Scales: Often completed by parents, teachers, and the individual themselves.
  3. Medical Evaluation: To rule out other possible causes for the symptoms.


The exact cause of ADHD is unknown, but it is believed to be related to:

  • Genetics: ADHD tends to run in families.
  • Brain structure and function: Differences in brain activity and structure in individuals with ADHD.
  • Environmental factors: Exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy or at a young age, low birth weight, and premature birth.


ADHD treatment typically includes a combination of:

  • Medication: Stimulants (like methylphenidate and amphetamines) are commonly prescribed. Non-stimulant medications (like atomoxetine) may also be used.
  • Behavioral Therapy: Helps individuals develop coping strategies and improve organizational skills.
  • Psychoeducation: Educating individuals and their families about ADHD.
  • Supportive Measures: Including school accommodations and support groups.

Managing ADHD

Living with ADHD involves creating strategies to manage symptoms effectively:

  • Routine: Establishing a consistent daily routine.
  • Organization: Using tools like planners, apps, and reminders to stay organized.
  • Healthy Lifestyle: Regular exercise, balanced diet, and sufficient sleep.
  • Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: Such as yoga or meditation to improve focus and reduce impulsivity.

Additional Resources

  • Support Groups: Connecting with others who have ADHD can provide valuable support and tips.
  • Professional Help: Regular check-ins with healthcare providers to monitor treatment effectiveness and make necessary adjustments.

Understanding ADHD and implementing effective strategies can greatly improve quality of life for individuals with the disorder and their families.